WorldWide Drilling Resource

Project Resumes to Reduce Flooding in England Adapted from Information by Environment Agency, UK Essential work on a flood alleviation project resumed in Earby, England, to reduce the risk of flooding to 91 homes and 17 businesses. The flood alleviation project involves making Victoria culvert structurally sound. Culverts are important structures which carry water underground. Culverts in the area were often built to allow development to take place around them, such as roads, homes, and business- es, so many people live and work near culverts without knowing they are there. The culvert repair project started in Lancashire in July 2018, and was expect- ed to take 13 weeks to complete, but the project experienced a setback due to a major obstruction being discovered while drilling the new culvert beneath a disused railway embankment. The Environment Agency’s contrac- tors, JBA Bentley found a solution to complete the remaining part of the cul- vert repair project. Further investigation of the existing culvert concluded a tech- nique called pipe bursting can be used to remove the obstruction and install the new culvert along the existing line. Other parts of the project have progressed and have been completed, including almost 200 feet of structural relining of the culvert. The Environment Agency con- tinues to explore other options to reduce flood risk from all sources in and around Earby, including possible flood storage areas and installing a flood defense wall. Paul Swales, flood risk advisor for the Environment Agency said, “We are now closing in on the completion of this project and would like to thank residents and businesses for their patience and understanding while we carry out this essential work to reduce flood risk in Earby.” 34 JUNE 2019 WorldWide Drilling Resource ® 302-684-3197 FAX: 302-384-0643 142 Broadkill Rd. • Milton, DE 19968 email: Manufacturers of Slotted & Perforated Pipe ranging from ½” to 24” diameter Atlantic Screen & Mfg., Inc. • Well Rehab. Products • Manholes • Bentonite • Filter Sock • Inline Chemical Mixers • Sampling Bailers • Clear PVC Pipe • Locking Caps ENV Ice is a mineral? Although many people do not think about ice as a mineral, it is a mineral just as much as quartz. To be a mineral, a substance must meet five requirements: naturally occurring (not made by humans); inorganic (not produced by an organism); solid; have a limited range of chemical compositions; and an ordered atomic structure. If the properties of water are compared to the five requirements of the mineral definition, it fails to qualify as a mineral because water is a liquid, which does not meet the requirement of a mineral being a solid. However, at temperatures below 32ºF (0ºC) water becomes the solid material called ice, which is a naturally occurring compound with a defined chemical formula and crystal structure, thus making it a legitimate mineral. Its only limitation, in comparison to all other minerals, is that it is not stable at room temperature. Furthermore, an ice cube made in a refrigerator would not be considered a mineral because it was produced by the actions of people. So, ice is a mineral only when it forms naturally. Ilmenite is one of the most significant ores of the metal titanium, and is named after the locality of the Ilmen Mountains, which are a part of the Southern Urals of Russia. It is an important industrial mineral mined in several deposits throughout the Ilmenite is very similar in structure to hematite, and is essentially the same, but with roughly half the iron replaced with titanium. Small amounts of titanium combined with certain metals will produce durable, high-strength, lightweight al- loys. These alloys are used to manufacture a wide variety high-performance parts and tools, including aircraft parts, artificial joints for humans, and sporting equipment such as bicycle frames. About 5% of ilmenite is used to produce titanium metal. Most of the remaining ilmenite is used to make titanium dioxide - an inert, white, highly reflective material. The most important use of titanium dioxide is as a whiting, which is a material ground to a powder and used as pigments. These pigments produce a white color and brightness in paint, paper, adhesives, plastics, toothpaste, and even food. Titanium dioxide is also used to make powders with a tightly controlled particle size range. These powders are used as inexpensive polishing abrasives in a variety of lapidary work which includes rock tumbling, lapping, cabbing, sphere making, and faceting. The World of Minerals W M r Yes! Horizontal directional drilling is used to locate minerals. MIN