WorldWide Drilling Resource

45 JULY 2022 WorldWide Drilling Resource® Groundwater and Irrigated Agriculture Study to Benefit Southwest Growers Adapted from Information by UC Davis Researchers from the University of California, Davis (UC Davis), were awarded a $10 million grant by the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Institute of Food and Agriculture to find ways to sustain irrigated agriculture while improving groundwater quantity and quality in the Southwest. Isaya Kisekka, associate professor of agrohydrology and irrigation, is leading a team of more than two dozen climate, plant, and soil scientists; hydrologists; engineers; economists; educators; and extension specialists from UC Davis and other institutions in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. They will develop climate change adaptation management strategies to help ensure sustainability of groundwater and irrigated agriculture. Kisekka said the project team in California will work with groundwater sustainability agencies to develop tools and data to enhance water management at both the farm and groundwater basin scales to improve crop production and achieve sustainability goals under the state’s Sustainable Groundwater Management Act, which provides a statewide framework to help protect groundwater resources over the long-term. The research team will also work with grower coalitions to achieve groundwater quality goals of the Central Valley Salt and Nitrate Management Plan. “For farmers, the biggest challenge threatening their business is water,” said Kisekka. “Our project is going to develop climate-smart adaptation management practices to help growers achieve their production goals while addressing the co-benefits for the environment and human health. We are going to develop cutting-edge tools to manage groundwater quantity and quality, as well as study how policies impact behaviors such as water use in agriculture.” The practices, models, and tools developed will be used by growers or their advisors, policymakers, irrigation districts, coalitions, and groundwater sustainability agencies to address climate change extremes such as drought or floods. Growers have increasingly depended on groundwater during multiyear droughts and heat stress. Part of the five-year project includes looking into aquifer systems in California’s Central Valley, central Arizona, and the lower Rio Grande basin in New Mexico. These regions have all experienced unprecedented overdraft, which happens when more water is pumped from a groundwater basin than is replaced from sources, including rainfall. “For a long time, a lot of farmers would use groundwater as an insurance policy whenever there was a drought,” explained Kisekka. “The negative consequences of that became obvious: groundwater levels declined; we had subsidence which causes land to sink; we had deterioration in water quality and so on. What are growers going to do when we have another drought like we are now? We have to think more broadly.” Kisekka said they will also come up with management practices to improve soil health, develop alternative water supplies, and reduce water demand so the region can continue to produce various agriculture commodities such as vegetables, grapes, and almonds. “We grow crops in California that we cannot shift to another part of the country because they won’t grow well there,” remarked Kisekka. “We can’t grow almonds in the Southeast where they have a lot of water because they require a certain climate. We want to ensure food and nutritional security of the United States by sustaining irrigated agriculture in the Southwest.” Project researchers will also establish innovative education and extension programs to teach all students, as well as the public, about the importance of water in agriculture. “Part of this is to develop educational curriculums from elementary to high school to college, where instructors can pull our modules on water management or sustainable agricultural systems and teach that in their classes,” said Kisekka. While the depletion of groundwater supplies, among other factors, puts major pressure on agricultural operations in the Southwest, Kisekka hopes management practices and tools developed during this project will help improve production and resource sustainability, and help make California and the country more resilient to climate change. UC Davis will establish the Agricultural Water Center of Excellence as part of the grant. This unique Center of Excellence will also have capacity to support agricultural water research, education, and extension activities at collaborating institutions with potential impact at local, state, national, and international levels. “We hope at the end of the day we can still grow food in California and the Southwest in general without drying out our groundwater aquifers,” added Kisekka. Professor Isaya Kisekka and students measure soil moisture at the UC Davis Agricultural Research Farm. WTR