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Environmental Monitoring by Thomas Kwader, Ph.D., P.G. WorldWide Drilling Resource ® Hydrogeologist Mother Nature’s Groundwater Purification System - Please Do Not Disturb! Most groundwater we pump from wells, often ranging from a few feet to a few hundred feet in depth, is usually of drinking water quality requiring little or no treatment. Fortunately, most all groundwater has its origin as rainwater which begins in the water cycle by evaporating from surface water bodies up into the atmosphere. This distillation process leaves behind many types of impurities in the surface water and sends the clean water up into the atmosphere to clouds via evaporation. However, during this evaporation process, the as- cending water may pick up carbonic and sulfuric acid (from auto exhaust, coal-fired power plants, etc.) which can cause the rainwater to be slightly acidic. Groundwater is likely to become contaminated while percolating into shallow soils by absorbing various contaminants such as: salts, fuels, bacteria, metals, nitrates, etc. Fortunately, groundwater is often purified as it percolates into the subsurface layers through numerous types of natural filters that remove or destroy unwanted contamination through various biological, chemical, and physical filters. Surface soils commonly contain various microorganisms (bacteria) in the soil column. Sands and clays also act as me- chanical filters that remove turbidity. Various harmful bacteria (such as sewage from septic tanks) are often unable to survive physical changes from oxidizing to reducing (anaerobic) conditions as they percolate deeper into anaerobic depths. Fuel type compounds can supply a source of carbon for bacteria to break down carbon - hydrogen - oxygen molecules into less toxic compounds which can be used by various plants and animals. In summary, this natural sequence of: 1) “filters” which mechanically remove microscopic turbidity to produce clear or nonturbid groundwater; 2) “oxidizing and reducing conditions” are capable of destroying harmful bacteria and viruses; 3) pres- ence of “organic matter” peat and carbon substrate can adsorb harmful forms of toxic metals; and, 4) “plants” can remove nitrates and phosphates from percolating groundwaters. Efforts should be taken to restore these natural layers when we as humans disrupt them by penetrating or removing these layered treatment systems. It takes a very long time to return the natural purification system and, ideally to protect our ground- water, these layers should not be disturbed. Tom Tom Kwader may be contacted via e-mail to Nitrate Coated Premium Liners 5x6, 5x8, & 5x10 Gardner Denver 5-1/2x8 & 5-1/2x10 Gardner Denver 7-1/2x8 & 7-1/2x10 Gardner Denver Rods Heat-Treated & Chromed 5x6, 5x8, & 5-1/2x8 Gardner Denver 5x10 & 5-1/2x10 Gardner Denver 7-1/2x8 & 7-1/2x10 Gardner Denver New Pumps In Stock Gardner Denver 4x5 TEE Triplex. Gardner Denver 5-1/2x5 TEE Triplex Gardner Denver 4x5 or 4-1/2x5 Duplex Gardner Denver 5x6 Duplex Gardner Denver 5x6 Air Drive Duplex Gardner Denver 5x8 Duplex Gardner Denver 5-1/2x8 Duplex Gardner Denver 7-1/2x8 Duplex Gardner Denver 7-1/2x10 Duplex Gardner Denver 5-1/2x5 THE Triplex Gardner Denver 5x8 PAH Triplex Call for Prices. We Have a Variety of Brands of Mud Pump Parts and Power Units in Stock. Special or Obsolete Parts Made to Order . Cash for Surplus Mud Pumps . Rebuilt Mud Pumps 4-1/2x6 Gaso Duplex 4-1/2x6 Oilwell Duplex Gardner Denver 4-1/2x8 PA-8 Triplex Gardner Denver 5x6 Duplex Gardner Denver 5x10 Duplex Gaso 5x10 Duplex OVER 300 PUMPS IN STOCK Armstrong Machine Co. Inc. Pocahontas, IA 50574 USA 712-335-4131 ~ 24 Hours 7 Days a Week • Fax: 712-335-4565 800-831-4527 USA & Canada (8AM to 4PM Monday-Friday) Hydraulic Grout Pumps 5”, 6”, & 7-1/2” 35 WorldWide Drilling Resource ® APRIL 2020 ENV