WorldWide Drilling Resource®

50 SEPTEMBER 2020 WorldWide Drilling Resource ® Frequently-Used Geological Terms Part 89 Glossary Adapted from the Dictionary of Geological Terms S S-dolostone - Stratigraphically controlled dolostone occurring in extensive beds and generally intertongued with limestone. Seam - Used to describe a bed of coal or a plane in a coal bed at which the different layers are easily separated. Seat Earth - A British term for a bed of rock underlying a coal seam, representing old soil supporting the vegetation from which the coal was formed. A highly siliceous seat earth is known as ganister. Secondary Mineral - A mineral formed later than the rocks surrounding it, usually at the expense of an earlier-formed primary mineral, as a result of weathering, metamorphism, or solution. Secondary Porosity - The porosity developed in a rock after its disposition or emplacement, through such processes as solu- tion or fracturing. Secondary Recovery - Production of gas or oil as a result of artificially augmenting the reservoir energy, such as injecting water or other fluid. Secondary recovery techniques are generally used after depletion of the reservoir. Sectile - A term to describe a mineral which can be cut with a knife, such as argentite. Sediment - Solid material which has settled down from a state of suspension in a liquid. Also used to describe solid, fragmented materials transported and deposited by wind, water, or ice, chemically precipitated from solution, or secreted by organisms, and forms in layers in loose unconsolidated form such as sand or mud. Sedimentary - Pertaining to or containing sediments, or formed by its deposition. Sedimentary Ore - A sedimentary rock of ore grade; an ore deposit formed by sedimentary processes, such as saline residues and phosphatic deposits. Sedimentary Petrography - The description and clas- sification of sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary Petrology - The study of the composition, characteristics, and origin of sediments and sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary Rock - A layered rock resulting from the consolidation of sediment such as sandstone, a chemical rock such as rock salt, or an organic rock such as coal. More terms next month! The sandstones at the Garden of the Gods Park in Colorado Springs, Colorado, show the beauty of sedimentary rocks. WWDR photo. The Oldest Operating Oil Well in the World Adapted from Information by Caterpillar and the Drake Well Museum Located in northwestern Pennsylvania, the McClintock Well No. 1 has been pumping oil since 1861, making it the world’s oldest continuously operated oil well. The history of oil production in the U.S. began in Titusville, Pennsylvania, in the 1850s. At that time, people were using whale oil to light lamps, and whales were becoming scarce. Looking for another energy source, the Pennsylvania Rock Oil Co. (founded as a wildly speculative adventure) hired Edwin Drake, an out-of-work railroad conductor, to drill for petroleum. Investors were interested in sending someone to Titusville, Pennsylvania, and since Drake had a railroad pass which would get him to Titusville for free, they thought he was perfect for the job. Drake was determined to find and produce crude oil, so when the company’s money ran out, he decided to borrow money from his own credit to continue drilling efforts. His first success, on August 27, 1859, came after drilling only 69½ feet. This oil strike launched the global oil industry. Drake’s oil strike led to a frenzy of drilling in the area, an oil rush similar to the gold rush in California, just a few years earlier. One of the companies seeking to get in on the action was Brewer, Watson, and Company. The company leased land just south of Titusville, on the Hamilton McClintock Farm and began drilling inAugust 1861. John Watson erected a dozen wells on the McClintock property. The wells were powered by human legs with operators sitting on devices similar to stationary bikes and “kicked down” the drill. It wasn’t long before the company struck oil at a depth of 620 feet at what was first called the Colby Well. The well would become known as McClintock Well No. 1. Sarah McKnight McClintock, who had leased her farmland to the company, wasn’t surprised when oil was struck. She claimed her family had been collecting and selling oil which had seeped to the surface for years. The well changed hands several times over the years and by 1952, became the prop- erty of the Quaker State Corporation. The company’s sense of history led it to make the purchase to ensure the well continued to operate several times a year to maintain its status as a continuously operated well. Forty years later, during the late 1990s, a period of consolidation for the oil industry, Quaker State became part of Royal Dutch Shell. The combined company transferred ownership of the McClintock Well to the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission in 2000, which maintains the well to this day. In addition to educating visitors of the historic value of the well, the museum makes sure it is pumped every quarter. The oil produced during its quarterly run is sold to pay for repairs, maintenance, and for upkeep of the well site. G&O Photo of the McClintock Well No. 1 circa 1915, courtesy of the Drake Well Museum. DIR