WorldWide Drilling Resource

22 JANUARY 2021 WorldWide Drilling Resource ® Environmental Monitoring by Thomas Kwader, Ph.D., P.G. Owner, Qwater Well Developer, and WorldWide Drilling Resource ® Hydrogeologist Is there Iron in the Groundwater? Probably the most common nuisance element in ground- water is iron (Fe). Iron can appear in many dissolved chemi- cal forms, including iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ), iron sulfide (FeS), iron carbonate (Fe 2 O 3 ), etc. The recommended iron level for drinking water is 0.3 mg/L (milligrams per liter); however, this is a level based on “esthetics” - particularly taste. Above this level, the taste may become objectionable when used as a drinking water source due to a “metallic” or iron taste. The health level is about 10 times this level and it should be noted that iron is a necessary nutrient at about 5-6 milligrams of iron per day (or about 4 gallons of consumed 0.3 mg/L water). High levels of iron in groundwater can have adverse effects, including staining of sinks, dishes, laundry, painted houses, and fences (from sprinklers). It can also clog filters and pipes over time. There are a number of ways to test for levels of iron. Easy-to-use test kits which detect iron levels in the field can be ordered online. Water samples can often be collected and dropped off at a local water testing laboratory. Some municipalities offer this service for little or no charge. There are a number of different treatments and strategies to remove iron from water. Common methods often used include oxidation of the soluble ferrous iron to the insoluble ferric form (iron oxide or rust), which is then filtered using a very fine membrane-type filter. This method works well for domestic type volumes at a few hundred gallons per day, but is not generally economically feasible for larger volumes. In addition to iron, other compounds of interest should be tested, depending upon local conditions - including fuels, solvents, metals, etc. Note: Arsenic can occur with iron which can be a health concern at much lower levels (0.01 ppm or parts per million) than iron. Other available iron removal methods include the use of ozone, chlorine, and peroxide, depending on iron concentrations and volumes of water to be treated. Next month in WWDR : Trying to Avoid Drilling into Iron- Rich Groundwater. ) Tom Tom Kwader may be contacted via e-mail to TWWA’s Annual Meeting & Trade Show March 5 - 6, 2021 The Park Vista Hotel Gatlinburg, TN For more information: (865) 761-4363 Join Us For: Technical Sessions Trade Show Honor Award Auction Ladies Auxiliary TWWA Business Meeting TWWA Board Meeting To tenderize inexpensive cuts of meat, soak in vinegar for up to four hours. This breaks down tough fibers and reduces carcinogenic compounds that form during grilling. Experiment with different vinegar varieties for added flavor, or simply use apple cider vinegar or distilled vinegar. Just be sure to rinse the meat off before cooking ENV