WorldWide Drilling Resource

24 OCTOBER 2021 WorldWide Drilling Resource ® When Conformity Yields Compiled by the Editorial Staff of W Pipes come in all shapes and sizes, and when they become badly damaged, rehabilitation is needed. Designed primarily for belowground sewer and drainage p They conform to any host pipe shape - square, round, oval, and anything in betwe A unique formula developed by Warrior Trenchless Solutions yields a product inside of a host pipe. It is extruded in the same way as conventional PVC pipe; however, while it is still hot, it is folded into a “C” or “ For installation, warming the material with steam causes it to soften to the point where it is pliable enough to be winched through tight fit. Then, while still under pressure, the material is cooled with chilled air until it becomes solid again. The compound allows for with greater flexibility to form to even the most complex shapes of host pipes. Typically, the installation process requires three to fou liner is pliable. The liners can be heated and cooled up to seven times without losing structural integrity. This allows technicians the f The Thermoform PVC-A liner is an inert, nontoxic, and shelf-stable product which cools and hardens into a tough, efficient pipe wit Diameters range from 4-36 inches, with various wall thicknesses depending on the application. A believer in these shape-shifting liners, Clearwater Structures, a civil construction firm in Ontario, Canada, tackled a 450-foot-lon which required the liner to make a sharp, 90-degree bend inside each manhole to enter the host pipe. The company was under a tig of the company said, “After we ran out of time, we just let the liner collapse inside the host pipe. Then we went back the following nig Eliminating the need for disruptive excavation, the Thermoform PVC-A liner holds some distinct benefits, setting it apart from ot pipeline’s structural integrity. Thermoform PVC-A liner. Photo courtesy of Thermoform. Combined XRD and NIR for Copper Mines Adapted from Information by Bruker Porphyry copper deposits commonly contain over a hundred million tons of ore averaging a fraction of 1% copper by weight. The copper minerals are mixed in with harder granitic rocks. Although they are low-grade, the deposits are important sources because they may be worked on a large scale at low cost. For efficient recovery of valuable metal from the ore, knowing the mineral composi- tion of the rock is fundamental, but copper ore analysis is challenging due to its complex concentrates and residues. Some of the world’s largest copper mines rely on Bruker X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) technology, software, and appli- cation expertise for analysis. XRD is found everywhere: in exploration, mine planning and operation, processing, quality con- trol, and assessment of waste products. X-raying hundreds of blasthole and process samples per day, the typical materials studied by XRD are: exploration drill cores and cuttings; blasthole drill splits; mill feeds, concentrates and tailings; and leach pile feed and residue samples. XRD directly probes the crystal structure and determines the chemical and physical properties of a material, which directly influences its value and technical use. Because a major cost factor in a concentrator plant is grinding, knowing the rock hardness helps save the mill’s electricity consumption and also reduces wear of the grinding consumables. Hard rock minerals can easily be determined with XRD, and the related annual savings of a larger mine far exceed the costs of an X-ray laboratory. Knowing the minerals assay is key to understanding the host rock properties like hardness, and also how to extract the metal from the surrounding rock. It tells how many explosives are needed for blasting in the mine, what mill to use for pulverizing the rock, what consumables, and how much energy will be needed. Also identified are waste rock and harmful minerals which may disturb the process of metal extraction or even render it uneconomic. Using combined Near-Infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and XRD allows fast, semiautomated measurement of mineral com- position, which leads to improved ore recovery and cost savings in the mining industry. NIR measures the change of absorption or transmission in soft mineral molecules, while XRD is specifically for investigating hard minerals and can uniquely distin- guish minerals of very similar chemistry. The study of the complete bulk rock and clay mineralogy requires both instruments. These complimentary methods support mine operations by providing a total picture of the minerals in the samples to improve processing, save energy, and increase recovery. EXB